Lubaantun was a Maya city in the Toledo District, about 26 miles (42 km) northwest of Punta Gorda, and approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) from the village of San Pedro Columbia. One of the most distinguishing features of Lubaantun is the large collection of miniature-ceramic objects found on site; these detailed constructs are thought to have been charm-stones or ritual-accompanying accouterments.
The city dates from the Maya classic era, flourishing from the AD 730s to the 890s, and seems to have been completely abandoned soon after. The architecture is somewhat unusual from typical Classical central lowlands Maya sites. Lubaantun’s structures are mostly built of large stone blocks laid with no mortar, primarily black slate rather than the limestone typical of the region. Several structures have distinctive “in-and-out masonry”; each tier is built with a batter, every second course projecting slightly beyond the course below it. Corners of the step-pyramids are usually rounded, and lack stone structures atop the pyramids; presumably some had structures of perishable materials in ancient times.
The centre of the site is on a large man-made hill between two small rivers; it has often been noted that the situation is well suited to military defense. The ancient name of the site is unknown; “Lubaantun” is a modern Maya name meaning “place of fallen stones”.